Sights In The Town
(1) Prague Castle - a spacious residential and stronghold area dominantly located above the town, founded about the year 880. Since the beginning a residence of the bohemian princes and kings, after 1918 of the Presidents of the republic. The most important cultural monument of Prague and the Czech republic.
(2 ) Cathedral of St Vitus, Wenceslas and Ethelbert - the coronational cathedral of the Bohemian sovereigns, and the main cathedral of the Prague Roman - Catholic archdiocese. The Gothic and neo-Gothic building was founded in 1344 on the place of a pre-Romanesque rotunda from the 10th century and Romanesque basilica from the 11th cent. Its east side was built in the 14th cent. by Mathias of Arras and Petr Parléř, west side was finished in the years 1876-1929 by J. Mocker and K. Hilbert. The most valuable spaces and sights of the cathedral: the chapel and grave of St Wenceslas, chamber of the Bohemian coronational jewels with the St Wenceslas'crown and further relics, crypt of the Bohemian kings, tombstones of the Hapsburg sovereigns and St John of Nepomuk, tombs of the Premyslide sovereigns, cathedral treasure, 20 choir chapels, out and inside triforia with a gallery of sculptural portraits founded in the 14th cent., remain of the pre-Romanesque and Romanesque churches, Gold gate with a mosaic of the Last Judgement in the south front, and so on.
(3) New Royal Palace - the Renaissance and baroque residence of sovereigns in the west part of the Castle, step by step constructed in the yearn 1564-1616 for Maxmilian II. and Rudolph II. Its different architectural styles ware united in the spirit of the baroque classicism in the years 1753-1775. Nowadays it is used for administrative and representative activities of the President of the republic.
(4) Church and Convent of St George - the oldest existing church in the area of the Prague Castle (fonded about 920, the present Romanesque building from the 11th - 12th cent.), a burial place of several princes of Premyslide dynasty. At the church former Benedictine convent, the first in Bohemia (founded by the abes Mlada in 973, reconstructed in the baroque style in the 17th. cent.). It was modernly adapted for the collections of old arts of the National gallery (1976).
(5) Golden Lane - a pitoresque lane with bizarre miniature houses built into the arcs below the shooters gallery of the castle fortification. It was built up, when the Emperor Rudolph II. (1597) granted a permition to 24 castle shooters to built at the walls their temporary habitations (so called "lozuments").
(6) Royal Summerhouse - a noble Renaissance residence in the Royal garden behinde the Stag moat. It was built in 1538-1560 by P. della Stella, H. Tirol and B. Wolmuth for the King Ferdinand I. anh his wife the Queen Ann. In 1952-1955 the building was reconstructed for exhibitings purposes. Outside the summerhouse there are two sights: in front of it the Renaissace Singing fountain in the middle of a symmetrical garden composition of giardinetto and the statue of Genius of Victory (by J. Štursa) in fornt of its arcades.
(7) Loreta - the pilgrimage place at the oldest Capuchine Monastery in Bohemia (founded 1600-1602) with Saint Shaty (G. B. Orsi, 1626-1627) and the church of Our Lord Birth (K. I. Dientzenhofer, 1734-1735), surrounded by a cloiser with chapels (G. B. Orsi, A. Allio, S.Carlone, 1634-1664). The topmost baroque front wing with a terrace and the tower (K. Dientzenhofer, K. I. Dientzenhofer, 1693-1723), in which the bells playing the Mariolatry song (the watchmaker P. Naumann, 1694) are place. In the Saint Shanty the statue of Virgin Mary of Loreta (the 17th century).
(8) Premonstratensian Monastery at Strahov - the Premonstratensian abbey of Strahov was founded in 1140. Its original romanesque walls had stayed preserved under later rebuildings. and were uncovered in the fifties of the 2Oth century. The present baroque apperance form the 2nd half of the 17th and the 18th cent. (arch. I. B. Mathey, A. Lurago, I. I. Palliardi), former parish church of St. Roch in the Lately Renaissance style (G. M. Filippi, 1602-1612). The abbey church ofVirgin Mary Ascension (baroque, 1743-1752) contains since 1627 the relics of St. Norbert. The halls of Philosophy and Theology with contiguous rooms, the valuable Strahov library with lots of medieval illuminated manuscripts, rare prints, maps, globes and graphic sheet. The Memorial of National Writings and its parts, the Museum of Bohemian Literature and Literary archives, have been placed here in the area of the monastery since the year 1953.
(9) Lesser Town Square with St Nicholas Church - the square came into existence I in 1257 as a centre of the just founded Lesser Town. The upper and lower parts are separated by former Jesuitical Profess House (baroque. D. Orsi, F. Lurago, before 1673) and St Nicholas Church, one of the most important buildings of baroque prague, with a domjnant dome and belfry (Arch. K. Dientzenhofer, K. I. Dientzenhofer, A. Lurago, 1704-1756, frescos and paintings by J. L. Kracker, F. X. Balko, K. Škréta, statues by J. B. Kohl, I. F. Platzer and others). The Lesser Town Hall (Renaissance, G. M. Filippi, G. Campione de Bossi, 1617-1622, in 1822 its Renaissance gables and towers were removed).
(10) Curch of Our Lady Victorious and Prague Infant Jesus - originally the church of Holy Trinity built in 1611-1613 (Arch G. M. Filippi). In 1624 it was given to the Order of Camlelites. They rebuilt it and completed bya tower in 1634-1669. In the central altar in the right, the 45 cm high wax statue of Amative Prague Infant Jesus is placed in a silver decorated box. It is a valuable Spanish work, in 1618 donated to the church by Polyxena of Lobkovice.
(11) Valdštejnský Palace - is the biggist among the Prague noble palaces. Its early baroque complex was founded in the years 1623-1630 on the plots of former 22 citizen houses among the Valdstejnske square. Klarov, Valdstejnska and Letenska street. Thee person who ordered its building was the Emperor's general and war contractor Albrecht Vaclav Eusebius of Valdstejn. The desin of the main of the palace and monumental sala terrena is attributed to A. Spezza, the garden wings and riding school hall were after his death (1628) finished by N. Sebregondi. Since the Parliament election in the year 1996, the palace has become the seat of the Senate of the Parliament of Czech Republic.
(12) Charles Bridge - then oldest preserved Prague bridge, founded by Charles IV in 1357 on the place of the Romanesque Judith bridge (from the 12th century), destroyed by floodwater. It was built after the Petr Parléř's design in the High Gothic style. Its construction finished in 1402. The lenght is 515 m, the width 10 m. Two Lesser Town bridge towers (the lower one of former fortifications of the Judith bridge with a Romanesque sculptural relief, the taller one Gothic), the Old Town bridge tower with valuable sculptural decorations (P. Parléř). 30 statues and statuaries of saints by the leading sculptors (F. M. Brokof, J. and E. Max, M. B. Braun, M. V. Jaeckl, K. Dvořák), between 1683 and 1928 placed on the bridge pillars.
(13) Klementinum - originally a Dominican monastery founded in 1232, from 1558 to 1773 a Jesuit college and academy, from 1773 the University library, State and University library, nowadays the National library of the Czech republic. On the place of the Gothic church of St Clement (the whole complex is named after him) the construction of the Jesuit church of St Salvatore was founded in 1578. Into its impressive early baroque appearance it was raised in several stages between 1578-1653 under the leadership of C. Lurago and F. Caratti. For the Italian colony living in Rudolphian Prague the Italian chapel ofVirgin Mary Ascencion after the design ofO. Mascarino was added to church in 1590-1597. The presenl orthodox church of St Clement with ostentatious decorations of its interior was built after the design of F. M. Kaňka in 1711-1715. The large complex of the jesuit college, primary and secondary school, academy and astronomica! observatory was built up around three inner courtyards in 1653-1730 after the designes or F. Caratti, later on of F. M. Kaňka and K. I. Dientzenhofer.
(14) Bethlehem Chapel - fonded in 1391 by the shopkeeper Kříž and Hanuš of Mülhelm for preaching in the Czech language, cradle of the Bohemian Hussite Reformation. Jan Hus preached here in 1402-1412, Jakoubek of Stříbro in 1414-1429, T. Münzer in 1521. In 1661 changed by the Jesuits into a Catholic church, in 1786 demolished. In 1950-1952 a copy of the original building including the of Preachers were erected (Arch. J. Frágner).
(15) National Theatre - neo-Renaissance building erected in 1868-1881 (Arch. Zítek) from funds collected among people of all the country. After the fire on 12 August 1881 re-built in 1881-1883 (Arch. Schulz). The interior and exterior decorations are the work of the Generation of National Theatre (M. Aleš. F. Ženíšek. J. Tulka. J. Mařák, V. Hynais, B. Schnirch, J. V. Myslbek and others). Symbol of the completion of the National Revival movement, the scene of the first performances of plays by national classics, the place where the best artists performed.
(16) Rudolfinum - House of Artists - neo-Renaissance building, erected in 1876-1884 after the design by J. Zítek and J. Schulz as the seat of the Society of Patriotic Friends of Art, Museum of Appied Arts, and Academy of Musik equipped by exhibition rooms and concert halls (Dvořak Hall). In 1918-1939 and 1945-1946 seat of the Parliament, since 1946 the House of artists and the seat of Czech Philharmony.
(17) Old Town Square - the most important square (market place) in historic Prague, dating from the 12th century, on the crossroads of routes to the Vltava fords. Besides the Old Town Hall, the church of Our udy in Front of Týn and St Nicholas Church dominate. Goltz-Kinský Palace (Rococo, K. I. Dientzenhofer, A. Lurago, 1755-1756) with the graphic collection of National Gallery, House At the Stone Bell (the Gothic town palace of the 14th century, re-built in thr baroque style after 1685,reconstructed into the original appearrance in 1980- 1987) with the exhibition and concert halls of the Gallery of the Capital of Prague, Týn School (Gothic double house, re-built in the baroque style) with Gothic arcade, fotmer Passionist Monastery (baroque, 1687-1696), former Servite Monastery with St Michael Church (baroque, the 17th-18th).
(18) Municipal House of the Capital of Prague - was built on the place of forrner King's Court in 1905-1911 as a representative palace of the town, after the design by A. Balšánek and 0. Polívka in the style of Prague Art nouveau. The group of halls (of Rieger, Gregr, Primator, Sladkovsky and others) around the central Smetana Hall is decorated br the works of the foremost artists of the turn of the 19th and 2Oth centuries (L. Šaloun, C. Vosmík, B. Kafka, J. V. Myslbek, J. Mařatka, F. Ženišek, I. Preisler, M. Švabinský, A. Mucha, K. Špillar and others). The place of declaration of the independent Czechoslovak state on 28. October 1918. the scene of negotiations of the representatives of Civic Forum, who after 17 November 1989 undertook the political powers, etc.
(19) Powder Gate - constructed as a representative entry into the old Town at King's Gate (19) - constructed as a representative entry into the Old Town at King's Court by M- Rejsek in 1475-1483 in the Lately Gothic style. Renovated in the Neo-Gothic style by J. Mocker in 1878-1886, 65 m high, stoneworks and sculptural decoration from the 15th and 19th centuries, the view gallery.
(20) Theatre of Estate - neo-classical building erected in 1781-1783 by the Count F. A. Nostitz-Rieneck (Arch. A. Haffenecker) for Count Nostic National Theatre From 1798 the Theatre of Estates, then Royal Country Theatre, since 1920 the 2nd scene of National Theatre. First performance of the Mozart's opera Don Giovanni (1787), and Tyl's farce Fidlovacka with the F. Škroup's song Kde domov můj (There is my home in 1834), Carl Maria Weber, the composer worked here in 1813-1816. In 1859 and 1881 re-built, in 1991 finished its general reparation and modernization.
(21) Old Town Hall - seat of the self-government of the Prague Old Town, established probably in 1299 at the Big Square (market place). The oldest part of the Town Hall complex with a tower, oriel chapel and rich coat of arms decorations in the High Gothic style. Astronomical Clock made before 1410 by Nicholas of Kadaň, completed in the end of the 15th century. The calendar sheet by J. Mánes placed in 1865, the new statues of Apostles by V. Sucharda (1948). The east Neo-Gothic wing of the Town Hall destroyed during the Prague Upspring on 8 Mai 1945 has never been rebuilt. Valuable interiors: Gothic Chapel, Senate and Brožík Halls, Calvary Passage. The Town Hall has been connected with the house "At the Cock" (Gothic) and "At the Minute" with Renaissance lunette cornice and sgrafitto.
(22) Church of Our Lady in Front of Týn - built between the half of 14th and the beginning of the 16th cent. on the place of an older sanctury, as the high Gothic basilica with 3 naves. After the fire in 1679 vaulted in the baroque style. Originally Hussite (the place of preaching of the archbishop Jan Rokycana), after 1620 the main Roman Catholic parish church. The northern portal with a sculptural portico (about 1390), sculptural works of the Týn master-Crucifixion (the 15th cent.), the altar with paintings by K. Škreta (1649), the tomb of the astronomer Tycho Brahe (†1601).
(23) Church of St Salvator - see: http://zavodsky.webz.cz/salvator/salvator.htm
(24) Convent of St Agnes Bohemian - originally convent of the poor Clares and Minorite monastery, founded in 1233-1234 by King Václav I. and St Agnes, abolished in 1782. The most important Early Gothic building in Prague (churches of St Francis, St Salvator, St Mary Magdalen and St Barbara chaples, Calvary Passage, refectory, dormitory).
(25) Church of Virgin Mary the Snowy - unfinished building of the Gothic monastery church of Carmelites was founded in 1347 be Charles IV.It is the highest church building in Prague (40 m). In 1606 the church was given to the Franciscan order and was renovaled in the Renaissance style. In 1611 during a raid of Passau troops the church was devastated by the Prague mob. It was renovated in the early baroque style after the year 1649. Its main altar, the biggest one in Prague, originaled in that period. Next to the church there are siluated baroque buildings of the monastery from the 17th cent. and the Franciscan garden, which is opened for public.
(26) National Museum - monumental Neo-Renaissance building of 1885-1890 (Arch. J. Schulz), the seal of the most important scientific and cultural institution of the Czech national revival, founded in 1818. Sculploral and pained decorations by the leading artisl of the end of the 19th century. Memorial Hall - Pantheon, the rooms and expositions of geological, mineralogical, zoological, archaeological and numismatic collections, a library with study.
(27) New Town Hall - gothic building complex from the last third of the 14th century and the early 15th cenlury, re-buill in the Renaissance style in 1520-1526 and after 1559. The tower with the chapel of Virgin Mary, two Gothic halls with rib vaulling, a Renaissance hall with the painted ceiling belong to the most interesting parts of the complex. In 1377-1784 the seat of the New Town self-government, later on the Country Criminal court and prison. In front of the town hall the statue of Jan Želivský (J. Lukešová, 1960), on an outer tower wall the standard of Prague Ell (59,27 cm) for public controlling measurements.
(28) Karlov - the complex of former monastery of Augustinians the Canons, founded by Charles IV. in 1350. Construcled step by step to the end of the 16th century, in 1668-1719 re-built and enlarged in the baroque style (Arch. G. D. Orsi, F. M. Kaňla). In 1785 the monastery was abolished and used as a poorhouse. Nowadays it is the seat of State Regional Archives and Criminal History Museum. The church of Virgin Mary and St Charles the Great founded as an octagonal central building after the pattern of the burial chapel of Charles the Great in the town of Aachen. The famous starlike vaulting from 1575 (possibly by B. Wolmuth ?), inner baroque decorations by F. M. Kaňka (1733), baroque roof in the shape of three domes from 1756. Saint Stairs with the undergrund chapel of Our Lord Birth (Bethlehem Cave) by J. A. Santini (1709). The statue of Charles IV. in the contiguous garden (J. Max. 1837).
(29) Slovany Abbey (Emauzy) - Benedictine monastery, originally ofthe Old Slavonic, since the 19th cent. of beuron rites. Founded by Charles IV. in 1347. All that survives are the capitular hall, imperial chapel and cloisters with mural paintings the valuable works of the Bohemian High Gothic art. The monastery buildings as well as the church of Our Lady, St Jeronyme and St Slavonic Patrons were damaged during an air-raid on 14 February 1945. During the renovation in 1957-1969 two modern concrete spires were erected (Arch. F. M. Černý) in the place of former towers. The liittle church of St Cosmas and Damian, originally) the parish church of the Podskalí settlement, is a part of the monastery complex.
(30) Old Jewisb Cemetery (30) -founded in the 1st half of the 15th century, later on step by step enlarged. as a burial ground was used to 1787. Among 12.000 tombstones and sepulchres in the Lately Gothic, Renaissance, baroque and rococo styles, it is possible to find the graves of Rabbi Abigdor Karo (1439), banker Mordechaj Maisel (1601), Rabbi Jehuda Löw - the creator of legendary Golem (1609)
(31) Old-New Synagogue - the oldest preserved Prague synagogue, constructed probably in the seventies of the 13th century in the advanced early Gothic style as a two-nave hall. Five-parted ribbed vaults are carried by two columns. The two nave hall has been completed by an ante-room and further low annexes. Its entry is decorated by an early Gothic portal with stonework decorations, a fragment of the leaf tympanum is preserved above the sanctuary, and a forged lattice from the 15th century is around the almemor. The west ante-room, arched by a cellular vault, the front wall of the Torah box and couple of treasure boxes were added to the building in the Renaissance period. In the 1883 it was restored by J. Mocker in the purism style (brick gables), the present appereance of its interiors originated in the years 1922-24. Now it is used as the capital synagogue of the Prague Jewish community.
(32) Jewish Town Hall - original town hall of Mordechaj Maisel from the 16th century, re-built in 1763 in the lately baroque style (Arch. J. Schlesinger). Enlarged in 1908 (M. Blecha). On the roof a wooden turret with rhe clock, witch dial has the Hebrew figures and the hands are turning in the opposite direction. The seat of the council of Jewish Religious Communities.
(33) Vyšehrad - the second seat of the Bohemian princes and kings of the Premyslides dynasty, founded in the 10th cent. The original castle figured in romantic legends about the beginning of Prague and the Bohemian state. Rotunda of St Martin (Romanesque, the 11th cent,), Chapter Curch of St Peter and Paul (Gothic, reconstructed in the Neo-Gothic style in 1885-1903), the chapels of St Ludmila (about 1880) and of Viorgin Mary in Walls (baroque, 1749), remnants of Gothic fortrifications (so called „Libuše's Bath“, a fragment of the "Šipka" gate), a baroque fortress of the 17th century with the „Tábor“ and Leopold gates and large casemates. Vyšehrad cemetery, where since the 19th century important personalities of the Czech nation have been buried, and the dominating honourable common vault of "Slavín" (A. Wiehl, J. Mauder, 1889-1893).
(34) Benedictine Archabby Břevnov - the oldest monastery in Bohemia, foundet probably in 993 by the Bishop St Ethelbert. Seat of the Slavonic congregation of the Order of St Benedict.
(35) Troja Mansion - exellent garoque architecture of this suburban mansion, witch was built in the years 1679-1685 for the Count V. V. Šternberk after the designs by the architects D. Orsi and later J. B. Mathey. In the years 1685-1703 it was completed by the garden staircaso with sculptural scenesof the fight between the Olympian Gods and Titans by J. J. and P. Hermanns. The walls of the main hall are decorated by the fresco of Apotheoza of the Habsburk's victory in the battle against Turks at Vienna (1683) by A. and I. Godyns (1697). The other frescos in the interiors are by F. and D. marchettis. After the years 1698 the terracce Franch garden was founded. After the reconstrution in 1977-1989 the mansioun area became a part of the Gallery of the Capital of Prague.
(36) Bertramka - Memorial of Dušeks and W. A. Mozart - suburban farmhouse from the 17th century rebilt in the 2nd half of the 18th century into a garden summer-mainson in the Classical style. In 1787 on the occasion of the Prague premiere of the opera "Don Giovanni" and again in 1791, W. A. Mozart stayed here as the Dušeks' guest. Memorial in the mansion, "Sala terrena" with paintings (after 1700), the bust of Mozart (T.Seidan, 1876), and the fountain of Vitae Spring (J. Kodet, 1975), in the Garden.